The national capital territory of Delhi with an area of 1483sq.km is situated between the Himalayas and Aravalis range in the heart of the Indian sub-continent. It is surrounded on 3 sides by Haryana and to the east, across the river Yamuna by Uttar Pradesh. The major part of the territory lies on the western side of the river Yamuna, only some villages and the urban area of Shahdara lie on the eastern side of the river. Its greatest length is around 33 miles and the greatest breadth is 30 miles. Delhi's altitude ranges between 213 to 305 metres above the sea level.
New Delhi, the capital of India, sprawled over the west bank of the river Yamuna is one of the fastest growing cities in India. It is surrounded on three sides by Haryana and to the east, across the river Yamuna by Uttar Pradesh. Historically, the city has long since been the foremost in political importance with successive dynasties choosing it as their seat of power, between the 13th and the 17th centuries. Remnants of the glorious past survive as important monuments in different parts of the city.
The myriad faces of the city are simply fascinating. In some places it remains a garden city, tree lined and with beautiful parks, but in some places it can also be crowded with heavy traffic. Turbaned Sikhs, colourfully dressed Rajasthani and Gujarati women working in offices, Muslim shopkeepers along Chandni Chowk in Old Delhi, Tibetans and Ladakhis in the street stalls along Janpath and Kashmiris in the handicraft emporia around Connaught Place, all add to the cosmopolitan feel of the city. Soaring skyscrapers, posh residential colonies and bustling commercial complexes can be seen along with the ancient historical monuments. Its boutiques and shopping arcades offer access to a wealth of traditional and contemporary crafts, from all over the country. Old Delhi which looks entirely different from New Delhi area, is about 6 Km north of the city center.
Delhi has some of the finest museums in the country. The main places to see in Delhi are Parliament House, Qutab Minar, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Lodi Garden, Humayun's Tomb, Birla Mandir, Lotus Temple etc.
The city has extreme climates- it experiences immense heat waves during the summer months and chilly coldness during the winters. The average temperature ranges from 25°C to 46°C during summer and 2°C to 5°C during winter. The best season to visit New Delhi is during the pleasant spring season of February to April and August to November.
Delhi, the capital of India before and after independence has perhaps seen, more of history than any other city in India. It was 1st created as the capital of an independent kingdom by Tomars in 736 AD and gradually it became the principal city of India and eventually its capital. Delhi changed hands at the end of the 12th century and passed on to the hands of the Muslim conquerors. Qutab-ub-din, Iltumish, Khiljis, Tughlaqs and Mughals ruled Delhi in succession. The city of Delhi passed on to the hands of the British in 1803 AD. It was only in 1911, when the capital of British empire was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, that Delhi got its present prestige. After independence also, a kind of autonomy was conferred on the capital but it largely remained a chief commissioners regime. In 1956 Delhi was converted into a Union territory and gradually the chief commissioner was replaced by a Lt. Governor. In 1991, the national capital territory Act was passed by the parliament and a system of diarchy was introduced under which, the elected Government was given wide powers; except law and order which remained with the central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.